<div class="csl-entry">Schnauder, I., Anlanger, C., & Koll, K. (2022). Wake flow patterns and turbulence around naturally deposited and installed trees in a gravel bed river. <i>International Review of Hydrobiology</i>, <i>107</i>(1–2), 22–33. https://doi.org/10.1002/iroh.202102096</div>
Large wood structures, such as wood fragments, debris jams, or entire trees, create flow and habitat diversity in rivers. A key flow feature associated with such structures is the wake, characterised by a core zone of reduced velocity and shear layers at its margins. Wakes are largely controlled by geometric and structural properties of the wood. In the present study, the flow patterns and turbulence created by different wood structures were compared at two study sites: naturally eroded and fragmented oaks (Site A) and artificial poplar installations (Site B). Flow and turbulence were quantified using pointwise velocity measurements with acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) and surface particle tracking velocimetry (SPTV). The measured flow patterns exhibited similarities with shallow porous wakes that feature fluid advection through the structure into the wake core downstream. Two additional features of wood structures were identified in the present study: (i) the growth of the shear layers was hindered by bed friction like for shallow mixing layers and (ii) the presence of a tree stem and sediment deposit in the wake centre delayed or even suppressed the interaction of the shear layers and vortex street formation similar to a wake-splitter plate. Methodologically, the combined ADV/SPTV measurement approach and the use of analytical models for shallow mixing layers proved to be highly valuable to decipher the complex flow patterns around wood structures in the field.