Title: Gas cleaning from sulfur- and nitrogen compounds of product gases from dual fluidized bed steam gasification via adsorption
Language: English
Authors: Lecinena, Martín 
Qualification level: Diploma
Keywords: Gasreinigung; Adsorption
gas cleaning; adsorption
Advisor: Hofbauer, Hermann 
Assisting Advisor: Benedikt, Florian  
Issue Date: 2020
Number of Pages: 86
Qualification level: Diploma
Abstract: 
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Climate change is one of the biggest issues that we must face as a society. The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2 has led to the development of renewable energy technologies that avoid the emission of contaminant gases. The target of the European Commission is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% by 2030 compared with 1990 levels. Nevertheless, the last results from 2018 showed that the GHG emissions across the European Union had fallen by 23 % compared with 1990 levels. For this reason, further development of renewable energy technologies is mandatory to replace fossil fuels. To decrease CO2 emissions, the use of biomass gasification has been proposed. Nevertheless, it is still an expensive technology compared to the use of fossil fuels. Further research on proper measurement systems is needed in order to increase the competitiveness of this alternative. For this reason, the aim of the present project is to conduct a bibliographical research about nitrogen and sulfur measurement technologies in order to select a reliable, cheap and fast measurement device for the 100 kW dual fluidized bed gasification reactor at TU Wien. When the possible technologies were identified, a testrun of the plant was performed to test some of these technologies. Also, a bibliographical research was done to develop experiments for fly char activation to activated carbon. The experiments were carried out in a cylindrical quartz fluidized bed reactor at TU Wien and the product was analyzed in a surface area and porosity analyzer. The results obtained from the test-run were not as expected, because the measurements did not match previous results. This can be solved in future attempts by improving the sampling or recalibrating the analyzers. With regard to the external physical activation of fly char, with the selected parameters the carbon content was removed from the sample within a retention time of 2 hours. During the experiments, a reduction of the sample mass was observed, meaning that new pores were created and the existing ones were narrowed. Nevertheless, this observation requires to be validated with a BET and porosity analysis. The outcome of the master thesis is a literature study comparing the most recommended measurement technologies for sulfur (H2S, COS) and nitrogen (NH3, HCN) impurities found in product gases from gasification processes. Besides, the possibility of an external physical activation was explored. Further research should be done finding the proper implementation of the recommended measurement technologies and to find suitable measurement technologies for tar impurities. Additionally, the porosity and the surface area from the resulting upgraded fly char should be analyzed and the physical activation should be performed in a bigger reactor to be able to use recommended gas flowrate values and to avoid the delay in the measurement systems due to the low gas flowrate. Furthermore, the physical activation process should be optimised performing experiments for multiple retention times to improve the quality of the product.
URI: https://doi.org/10.34726/hss.2020.72862
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12708/15246
DOI: 10.34726/hss.2020.72862
Library ID: AC15713477
Organisation: E166 - Institut für Verfahrenstechnik, Umwelttechnik und technische Biowissenschaften 
Publication Type: Thesis
Hochschulschrift
Appears in Collections:Thesis

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