IT departments try to find the best way of providing IT services. In today's business world SOA is in everybody's mind. Sophisticated best practice procedures and frameworks have been developed. Currently, the most prevalent manual is the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) by the Office of Government Commerce. The target of this study is to explore the key dimension of the transition to ITIL V2 and ITIL V3, also regarding political issues. A survey was utilised to determine the perceptions of IT service managers concerning key success and failure factors when implementing ITIL and furthermore to reveal advantages and disadvantages of having an ITIL compliant IT organisation. Some of the results were expected others were surprising. For example, the increased need for documentation - some might call it bureaucracy - was not regarded to be a disadvantage of ITIL. In conclusion management needs to be aware that especially political issues have an influence on the implementation and the success of ITIL.