Title: Applying the Water-Energy Nexus for Water Supply – A Diagnostic Review on Energy Use for Water Provision in Africa
Authors: Macharia, Pauline 
Kreuzinger, Norbert  
Kitaka, Nzula  
Category: Original Research Article
Issue Date: 2020
Journal: Water 
ISSN: 2073-4441
Abstract: 
This work explores the application of the Water-Energy Nexus concept for water supply in the African context, where its operationalization is quite limited compared to developed regions. Furthermore, water supply and demand drivers and their influence on energy use are examined. This study found that there is limited literature available on the operationalization of the concept, and energy use is not considered a key performance indicator by water regulators and utilities. Regionally, most of the studies were carried out in the northern and southern Africa, where energy demand for water supply through desalination is high. An analysis of water supply and demand drivers show diminishing quantities of available freshwater, and increased anthropogenic pollutant loads in some areas are projected. Consequently, utilities will likely consider alternative energy-intensive water supply options. Increased population growth with the highest global urban growth rate is projected, with about 60% of the total population in Africa as urban dwellers by 2050. This implies huge growth in water demand that calls for investment in technology, infrastructure, and improved understanding of energy use and optimization, as the largest controllable input within utilities boundaries. However, it requires a data-driven understanding of the operational drivers for water supply and incorporation of energy assessment metrics to inform water-energy policies and to exploit the nexus opportunities.
Keywords: demand-side/supply-side drivers; energy use; key performance indicator; water-energy-nexus; water supply
water utilities
DOI: 10.3390/w12092560
Organisation: E226-01 - Forschungsbereich Wassergütewirtschaft 
License: CC BY 4.0 CC BY 4.0
Publication Type: Article
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