Title: Reference Systems for Urban Mobility
Authors: Nagarajan, Balasubramanian 
Editors: Winter, Stephan 
Goel, Salil 
Issue Date: Jul-2021
Book Title: Smart Parking in Fast-Growing Cities 
Abstract: 
In the study of urban mobility, understanding the contribution of geospatial data and the relevant
geospatial technologies associated with the collection, storage, and manipulation of geo-referenced
data is essential. Correct understanding of the reference frames used for the collection of geospatial
data ensures that the integrity and accuracy of the data collected is maintained, keeping in mind the
surveying principle, ‘whole to part’. It also ensures that the errors involved in the collection of data
are well within the accuracy range expected for the particular scale of mapping, which may then be
used for computations of distance or area. Geospatial data is collected in a three-dimensional space
and is converted to a two-dimensional space for many practical applications. A large range of map
projections are available for this conversion which, again, maintain different cartographic properties
for any specific application. The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) is one such projection, which
has properties that come in handy for our problem of mapping for urban mobility. Global Navigation
Satellite Systems (GNSS) and their integration with cellular network infrastructure have caught
the imagination of people and served as the inspiration for a wide spread of applications such as
automatic vehicle location, tracking systems, navigation, pedestrian navigation systems, intelligent
transportation Systems, and precise positioning of emergency callers, all using a location in some
reference system.
Keywords: reference frame; geoid; geoid undulation; ellipsoid; orthometric and ellipsoidal heights; map projections; UTM; GNSS
DOI: 10.34727/2021/isbn.978-3-85448-045-7_2
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12708/18069
https://doi.org/10.34727/2021/isbn.978-3-85448-045-7_2
Organisation: E120 - Department für Geodäsie und Geoinformation 
License: CC BY-SA 4.0 CC BY-SA 4.0
Publication Type: Book Contribution
Buchbeitrag
Appears in Collections:Book Contribution

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