machine learning; obstacle avoidance; path planning; real time; simplex architecture
The paper addresses the problem of using machine learning in practical robot applications, like dynamic path planning with obstacle avoidance, so as to achieve the performance level of machine learning model scorers in terms of speed and reliability, and the safety and accuracy level of possibly slower, exact algorithmic solutions to the same problems. To this end, the existing simplex architecture for safety assurance in critical systems is extended by an adaptation mechanism, in which one of the redundant controllers (called a high-performance controller) is represented by a trained machine learning model. This model is retrained using field data to reduce its failure rate and redeployed continuously. The proposed adaptive simplex architecture (ASA) is evaluated on the basis of a robot path planning application with dynamic obstacle avoidance in the context of two human-robot collaboration scenarios in manufacturing. The evaluation results indicate that ASA enables a response by the robot in real time when it encounters an obstacle. The solution predicted by the model is economic in terms of path length and smoother than analogous algorithmic solutions. ASA ensures safety by providing an acceptance test, which checks whether the predicted path crosses the obstacle; in which case a suboptimal, yet safe, solution is used.