Title: Current Directions in the Auricular
Language: English
Authors: Kaniusas, Eugenijus 
Kampusch, Stefan
Tittgemeyer, Marc 
Panetsos, Fivos 
Gines, Raquel Fernandez 
Papa, Michele 
Kiss, Attila 
Podesser, Bruno 
Cassara, Antonino Mario 
Tanghe, Emmeric
Samoudi, Amine Mohammed 
Tarnaud, Thomas 
Joseph, Wout
Marozas, Vaidotas 
Lukosevicius, Arunas 
Ištuk, Niko 
Lechner, Sarah 
Klonowski, Wlodzimierz 
Varoneckas, Giedrius 
Széles, Jozsef Constantin 
Šarolic, Antonio 
Category: Review Article
Issue Date: 2019
Journal: Frontiers in Neuroscience
ISSN: 1662-453X
Electrical stimulation of the auricular vagus nerve (aVNS) is an emerging electroceutical technology in the field of bioelectronic medicine with applications in therapy. Artificial modulation of the afferent vagus nerve – a powerful entrance to the brain – affects a large number of physiological processes implicating interactions between the brain and body. Engineering aspects of aVNS determine its efficiency in application. The relevant safety and regulatory issues need to be appropriately addressed. In particular, in silico modeling acts as a tool for aVNS optimization. The evolution of personalized electroceuticals using novel architectures of the closed-loop aVNS paradigms with biofeedback can be expected to optimally meet therapy needs. For the first time, two international workshops on aVNS have been held in Warsaw and Vienna in 2017 within the scope of EU COST Action “European network for innovative uses of EMFs in biomedical applications (BM1309).” Both workshops focused critically on the driving physiological mechanisms of aVNS, its experimental and clinical studies in animals and humans, in silico aVNS studies, technological advancements, and regulatory barriers. The results of the workshops are covered in two reviews, covering physiological and engineering aspects. The present review summarizes on engineering aspects – a discussion of physiological aspects is provided by our accompanying article (Kaniusas et al., 2019). Both reviews build a reasonable bridge from the rationale of aVNS as a therapeutic tool to current research lines, all of them being highly relevant for the promising aVNS technology to reach the patient.
Keywords: vagus nerve stimulation; auricular nerves; auricular transillumination; stimulation patterns; stimulation optimization; in silico modeling; personalized stimulation
DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00772
Library ID: AC15561212
URN: urn:nbn:at:at-ubtuw:3-8355
Organisation: E354 - Electrodynamics, Microwave and Circuit Engineering 
Publication Type: Article
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