Title: Fate and persistence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes through a multi-barrier treatment facility for direct potable reuse
Authors: Wallmann, Lina 
Krampe, Jörg  
Lahnsteiner, Josef 
Radu, Lacramioara-Elena 
van Rensburg, Pierre 
Slipko, Katarzyna Anna 
Wögerbauer, Markus 
Kreuzinger, Norbert  
Category: Original Research Article
Issue Date: 5-Jan-2021
Citation: 
Wallmann, L., Krampe, J., Lahnsteiner, J., Radu, L.-E., van Rensburg, P., Slipko, K. A., Wögerbauer, M., & Kreuzinger, N. (2021). Fate and persistence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes through a multi-barrier treatment facility for direct potable reuse. Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination, 11(3), 373–390. https://doi.org/10.2166/wrd.2021.097
Journal: Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination 
ISSN: 2220-1319
Abstract: 
Given the availability of technological solutions and guidelines for safe drinking water, direct potable reuse of reclaimed water has become a promising option to overcome severe lack of potable water in arid regions. However, the growing awareness of the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in corresponding raw wastes has led to new safety concerns. This study investigated the fate of ARB and intracellular and extracellular ARG after each treatment step of an advanced water treatment facility in Windhoek, Namibia. The New Goreangab Water Reclamation Plant (NGWRP) produces drinking water from domestic secondary wastewater treatment plant effluent and directly provides for roughly a quarter of Windhoek's potable water demand. Procedures to study resistance determinants were based on both molecular biology and culture-based microbiological methods. TaqMan real-time PCR was employed to detect and quantify intracellular resistance genes sul1, ermB, vanA, nptII and nptIII as well as extracellular resistance gene sul1. The NGWRP reduced the amount of both culturable bacterial indicators as well as the resistance genes to levels below the limit of detection in the final product. The main ozonation and the ultrafiltration had the highest removal efficiencies on both resistance determinants.
Keywords: antibiotic resistance; ARB; ARG; direct potable reuse
DOI: 10.2166/wrd.2021.097
Organisation: E226-01 - Forschungsbereich Wassergütewirtschaft 
License: CC BY 4.0 CC BY 4.0
Publication Type: Article
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