Danner, C., Mach, R., & Mach-Aigner, A. R. (2023). The phenomenon of strain degeneration in biotechnologically relevant fungi. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 107, 4745–4758. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-023-12615-z
Fungi are widely exploited for large-scale production in the biotechnological industry to produce a diverse range of substances due to their versatility and relative ease of growing on various substrates. The occurrence of a phenomenon-the so-called fungal strain degeneration-leads to the spontaneous loss or decline of production capacity and results in an economic loss on a tremendous scale. Some of the most commonly applied genera of fungi in the biotechnical industry, such as Aspergillus, Trichoderma, and Penicillium, are threatened by this phenomenon. Although fungal degeneration has been known for almost a century, the phenomenon and its underlying mechanisms still need to be understood. The proposed mechanisms causing fungi to degenerate can be of genetic or epigenetic origin. Other factors, such as culture conditions, stress, or aging, were also reported to have an influence. This mini-review addresses the topic of fungal degeneration by describing examples of productivity losses in biotechnical processes using Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei, and Penicillium chrysogenum. Further, potential reasons, circumvention, and prevention methods are discussed. This is the first mini-review which provides a comprehensive overview on this phenomenon in biotechnologically used fungi, and it also includes a collection of strategies that can be useful to minimize economic losses which can arise from strain degeneration. KEY POINTS: • Spontaneous loss of productivity is evident in many fungi used in biotechnology. • The properties and mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are very versatile. • Only studying these underlying mechanisms enables the design of a tailored solution.
Ein pleiotroper Regulator des Sekundärmetabolismus: P29556-B22 (FWF Fonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung (FWF))
Sustainable Production and Technologies: 50% Efficient Utilisation of Material Resources: 50%