Wu, H., Romano, F., & Kuhlmann, H. (2021). Attractors for the motion of a finite-size particle in a two-sided lid-driven cavity. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 906, 1–50. https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2020.768
The motion of a single spherical particle in a two-sided lid-driven cavity is investigated experimentally. The flow in which the particle moves is created by two facing cavity sidewalls which move with equal velocity in opposite directions. For a long cavity with width-to-height cross-sectional aspect ratio the flow field at Reynolds number consists of steady spatially periodic three-dimensional convection cells. Nearly neutrally buoyant particles with radius in units of ranging from to are found to be attracted to periodic or quasi-periodic orbits in close vicinity of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) tori of the unperturbed flow. Like the KAM tori the attractors of neutrally buoyant particles arise in mirror-symmetric pairs within each convection cell. The particle attractors are created by a dissipative effect in the dynamical system describing the particle motion which arises when the finite-size particle closely passes the moving walls. When the particle density deviates from that of the fluid, inertial attractors arise whose symmetry is broken by buoyancy, and other periodic attractors are created which do not have KAM tori as counterparts.