The concept of operator left residuation has been introduced by the authors in their previous paper (Chajda and Länger in Asian Eur J Math 11:1850097, 2018). Modifications of so-called quantum structures, in particular orthomodular posets, like pseudo-orthomodular, pseudo-Boolean and Boolean posets are investigated here in order to show that they are operator left residuated or even operator residuated. In fact, they satisfy more general sufficient conditions for operator residuation assumed for bounded posets equipped with a unary operation. It is shown that these conditions may be also necessary if a generalized version using subsets instead of single elements is considered. The above-listed posets can serve as an algebraic semantics for the logic of quantum mechanics in a broad sense. Moreover, our approach shows connections to substructural logics via the considered residuation.