Title: Freezing on a Chip—A New Approach to Determine Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation of Micrometer-Sized Water Droplets
Language: English
Authors: Häusler, Thomas 
Witek, Lorenz 
Felgitsch, Laura 
Hitzenberger, Regina 
Grothe, Hinrich 
Category: Research Article
Keywords: new instrument; micrometer droplets; ice nucleation; ice nucleation particle; immersion freezing
Issue Date: 2018
Journal: Atmosphere
We are presenting a new approach to analyze the freezing behavior of aqueous droplets containing ice nucleating particles. The freezing chip consists of an etched and sputtered (15 × 15 × 1) mm gold-plated silicon or pure gold chip, enabling the formation of droplets with defined diameters between 20 and 80 µm. Several applications like an automated process control and an automated image evaluation were implemented to improve the quality of heterogeneous freezing experiments. To show the functionality of the setup, we compared freezing temperatures of aqueous droplets containing ice nucleating particles (i.e., microcline, birch pollen washing water, juniper pollen, and Snomax® solution) measured with our setup, with literature data. The ice nucleation active surface/mass site density (ns/m) of microcline, juniper pollen, and birch pollen washing water are shown to be in good agreement with literature data. Minor variations can be explained by slight differences in composition and droplet generation technique. The nm values of Snomax® differ by up to one order of magnitude at higher subzero temperatures when compared with fresh samples but are in agreement when compared with reported data of aged Snomax® samples.
DOI: 10.3390/atmos9040140
Library ID: AC15576023
URN: urn:nbn:at:at-ubtuw:3-8532
ISSN: 2073-4433
Organisation: E165 - Institut für Materialchemie 
Publication Type: Article
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