Title: Lightweight interventions as solutions to the annual pilgrimage to Makkah (The Hajj) : The role of shading structures for pedestrians walkways
Language: English
Authors: Sijiny, Reda Saud 
Qualification level: Diploma
Advisor: Rasch, Bodo 
Issue Date: 2016
Number of Pages: 117
Qualification level: Diploma
The annual Islamic pilgrimage (Hajj) to the holy areas in Western Arabia is unquestionably the largest annually occurring mass congregation of people in one place in the world. Peaking in a five-day period that takes place in the city of Makkah and within areas on its outskirts, known as the Holy Precincts, the Hajj presents one of the largest logistical challenges for the government of Saudi Arabia. However, the Hajj is still relying on crisis management tactics to operate-for reasons that will be presented in the thesis- despite the passing of more than forty years since authorities identified the magnitude of the task and started implementing modern solutions to deal with the rapidly increasing numbers of the pilgrims. This thesis provides a fresh approach to solving some aspects of the Hajj and its problems by focusing on how lightweight structures as interventions can help minimize this dependence by the Hajj organizers on crisis management. An introductory section describes the Hajj rituals, showing that it is mainly composed of set of predefined movements in between the Holy Precinct locations. The same section will continue by describing the problems facing the Hajj that have developed as a result of modern conditions. With particular attention focusing on the congestion during the Nafrah is caused by priority given to vehicular transportation over pedestrian movement. This section aims to bring back attention that pedestrian aspect of Hajj is as vital if not more important and needs more attention. Next, the major section deals with recent research and development in the field of pedestrian movement and analysis and the challenges that face the conventional vehicular transport of the Hajj and focuses specifically on problems obstructing the smooth flow of pedestrian Hajj movement. The third section explores the role that lightweight structures and innovative building technology can play in solving some of the problems facing the Hajj. A review of several proposals that have been commissioned in the past using this approach is presented. One particularly interesting proposal, a shading structure for the pedestrian walkways, was further analysed and researched and also reconstructed using design software. It is hoped that in theory, these types of proposals will redirect the debate about pedestrian movement in the Hajj and encourage performing the Hajj on foot. It will also help change the dominant belief that using buses is the only option for transportation in the Hajj, on the contrary, it should be the last option, especially for the Nafrah. In practice, such kinds of projects, if implemented, will offer a less complicated and less cumbersome alternative to performing the Hajj. It will also give organizers new tools and applications to relieve congestion of vehicular transportation modes, thus achieving a better rate of separation between pedestrian and vehicular circulation in the Hajj.
Keywords: Hajj; Pedestrian Movement; Walkway Shading; Canopies for shading; Hajj Research Centre; Lightweight Structures for the Hajj
URI: https://resolver.obvsg.at/urn:nbn:at:at-ubtuw:1-8806
Library ID: AC13379254
Organisation: E017 - Continuing Education Center 
Publication Type: Thesis
Appears in Collections:Thesis

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