Title: Design of the Smart Grid Architecture According to Fractal Principles and the Basics of Corresponding Market Structure
Authors: Ilo, Albana 
Category: Original Research Article
Issue Date: 31-Oct-2019
Citation: 
Ilo, A. (2019). Design of the Smart Grid Architecture According to Fractal Principles and the Basics of Corresponding Market Structure. Energies, 12(21), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12214153
Journal: Energies 
ISSN: 1996-1073
Abstract: 
Nowadays, there is a dramatic upsurge in the use of renewable energy resources, ICT and digitalization that requires more than the straightforward refinements of an established power system structure. New solutions are required to perform dynamic optimizations in real time, closed loops and so on, taking into account the high requirements on data privacy and cyber security. The LINK-paradigm was designed to meet these requirements. It was developed on the basis of the bottom-up method that can lead to misinterpretations or wrong conclusions. This work mainly deals with the verification of the authenticity and correctness of LINK. Fractal analysis is used to identify the unique and independent elements of smart grids required for the design of an architectural paradigm. The signature of the fractal structure, the so-called fractal pattern, is founded and referred to as electrical appliances (ElA). The latter has proven to be the key component of the architectural LINK paradigm. The definition of the LINK paradigm is finally validated: It consists of unique and independent elements that avoid misinterpretation or the need for any changes in its definition. Additionally, the fractal analysis indicates two fractal anomalies in the existing power system structure, while the fractal dimension calculation insinuates the highest complexity in the fractal level of electrical devices. The LINK-based holistic architecture is given a finishing touch. A compact presentation of the control chain strategy is provided that should facilitate its practical implementation. The basis for the harmonization of the market structure with the grid link arrangements is established. The processes of demand response and conservation voltage reduction are presented under the new findings.
Keywords: fractal design; fractal grid; holistic power system architecture; LINK-paradigm; local electricity market; market design; smart grid
DOI: 10.3390/en12214153
Organisation: E370-01 - Forschungsbereich Energiesysteme und Netze 
License: CC BY 4.0 CC BY 4.0
Publication Type: Article
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