Fractional calculus has gained a lot of attention in the last couple of years. Researchers have discovered that processes in various fields follow fractional dynamics rather than ordinary integer-ordered dynamics, meaning that the corresponding differential equations feature non-integer valued derivatives. There are several arguments for why this is the case, one of which is that fractional derivatives inherit spatiotemporal memory and/or the ability to express complex naturally occurring phenomena. Another popular topic nowadays is machine learning, i.e., learning behavior and patterns from historical data. In our ever-changing world with ever-increasing amounts of data, machine learning is a powerful tool for data analysis, problem-solving, modeling, and prediction. It has provided many further insights and discoveries in various scientific disciplines. As these two modern-day topics hold a lot of potential for combined approaches in terms of describing complex dynamics, this article review combines approaches from fractional derivatives and machine learning from the past, puts them into context, and thus provides a list of possible combined approaches and the corresponding techniques. Note, however, that this article does not deal with neural networks, as there is already extensive literature on neural networks and fractional calculus. We sorted past combined approaches from the literature into three categories, i.e., preprocessing, machine learning and fractional dynamics, and optimization. The contributions of fractional derivatives to machine learning are manifold as they provide powerful preprocessing and feature augmentation techniques, can improve physically informed machine learning, and are capable of improving hyperparameter optimization. Thus, this article serves to motivate researchers dealing with data-based problems, to be specific machine learning practitioners, to adopt new tools, and enhance their existing approaches.
Zentrum für Kernspinresonanzspektroskopie
Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG)
Mathematical and Algorithmic Foundations: 50% Computer Science Foundations: 50%